Polity Notes

BREXIT - Britain’s Exit from European Union

EEC – European Economic Community

EC – European Community

EU – European Union

BREXIT – Britain’s Exist from European Union

Germany and France fought against each other in Second World War (fought between 1939 to 1945 between Axis Powers vs. Allies Powers). Germany was a member of Axis Powers and France was a member of Allies Powers. After the end of the Second World War there were efforts to make friendly and cooperative relations between West Germany and France. European Economic Community (EEC) was formed on 25th March, 1953 as a Regional Organisation aimed to bring about Economic Integration among its Six founding members – Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands (also known as Holland) and West Germany. EEC was created by ‘The Treaty of Rome of 1957’. Britain became a member of EEC on 1st January, 1973. Upon the formation of European Union in 1993, the EEC was renamed as European Community (EC) in 1993 through Maastricht Treaty. The name of EEC was changed to EC to reflect that this organisation covers a wider range than just Economic Affairs. In 2009 by ‘The Treaty of Lisbon’ the EC was absorbed into European Union’s wider framework and EC ceased to exists.

European Union was a Politico, Economic Union of 28 States (as now Britain has left European Union, the present strength is 27). European Union was formed on 1st November, 1993 by Maastricht Treaty whose main architects were Chancellor of West Germany Mr. Helmut Kohl and President of France Mr. Francois Mitterrand. Its motto is United in Diversity Capital of European Union is Brussels (in Belgium), currency Euro, total population approx. 50 crore (7.33% of World’s population) last member to join European Union Croatia (in 2013). First member to leave European Union is Britain (Left European Union on 31st January, 2020).

European Union is a Unique Economic and Political Union between 27 European Countries. It began as a purely Economic Union but now has evolved into an organisation spanning policy areas from Climate, Environment, Health, External Relations, Security, Justice, Migration etc. In 2012 European Union was awarded Nobel Prize for advancing the cause of Peace, Democracy and Human Rights in Europe. European Union operates a single market which allows free movement of goods, services, capitals and people between member States.

The three main institution of European Union are–

(i) European Parliament (Mr. Devid Maria Sassoli, President, since 3rd July, 2019)

(ii) European Council (Mr. Charles Michel, President and Chief Administrative Officer, since 1st December, 2019) The Members of European Council are the heads of States or head of Governments of 27 European Union member states, European Council President and President of European Commission.

(iii) European Commission (Ms. Von Der Leyen, President and Chief Executive, since 1st December, 2019)

22 States of European Union have abolished passport and border controls at their common borders.


In Britain there was a growing demand that Britain should leave European Union. Independence party and some other groups campaigned for many years for Britain’s Exit from European Union. British Government under the Prime Minister David Cameron was against BREXIT. Ultimately due to growing demand a referendum (plebiscite) was held in Britain in June, 2016 to take the views of British public on this issue. The verdict of the referendum was in favour of leaving the European Union. 51.9% Britishers supports BREXIT while 48.1% were against leaving the European Union. British Prime Minister David Cameron took moral responsibility of the referendum and resigned. Ms. Theresa May who was Home Minister in David Cameron’s Union Council of Ministers became the new Prime Minister. She too was against BREXIT but declared that the Government will honour the verdict of referendum and Britain will leave European Union. The Constitution of European Union under Article 50 lays the procedure of leaving the European Union by a member Country. Ms. Theresa May Government filed an application before the European Union as per Article 50 of the Constitution of European Union to leave European Union. Finally U.K. left European Union on 31st January, 2020. British Government paid 39 Billion pounds to European Union as per withdrawal agreement.

Britain is the only Country who has left European Union since its formation in 1993.

Reasons of BREXIT

1. Sovereignty: Britishers wanted that decision about Britain should be taken in Britain and by British Government and not by European Union.

2. Immigration: Britishers wanted to regain control over immigration and its own borders.

3. Economic: Britishers felt that due to formation of European Union the citizens of other member countries have benefited and not the Britishers. The Demography of Britain has changed, Job and Business opportunities have been reduced for Britishers. Britain has gained less and lost more after becoming member of European Union.