Polity Notes

Important Points of Indian Polity

President can issue ordinance (ART 123) when one of the house of the Parliament is not in a session. This is a convention that President does not issue ordinance while Parliament session is going on. Validity of an ordinance is 6 months + 6 weeks. Ordinance must be approved within 6 weeks after the start of the session of the Parliament. Ordinance will expire after 6 weeks if not approved once both the houses of Parliament are in session. Amendment in Constitution cannot be made by ordinance route. Ordinance route is used for immediate action i.e., if President is satisfied that circumstances exists which make it necessary for him to take immediate action. He may issue ordinance as the circumstances appear to him to require. Ordinance have the same force and affect as an act of Parliament. President issued ordinance twice to implement provisions to Criminalise practise of Triple Talaq. President’s ordinance can also be Judicially challenged. STATE GOVERNORS too can issue ordinance under ART 213.

Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children Act, 2015) replaced Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children Act, 2000) so, that Juvenile’s in the age group of 16 to 18 years involved in Heinous Crimes can be tried as an adult. This act came into force on 15.01.2016 Maximum punishment under this act is 10 years of imprisonment.

Supreme Court in Vishakha & others vs. State of Raj & others 1997 formulate measures to check the evil of Sexual Harassment of working women at all working places.

The Judgement was given by a bench of Supreme Court by CJI J.S. Verma, Justice Sujata Manohar & Justice B.N. Kirpal provided the basic definition of Sexual Harassment at the work place and provided guidelines to deal with it.

The First Budget of India was presented on 18th February, 1860 by Scotsman James Wilson. First Budget of Independent India was presented by R.K. Shanmukham Chetty on 26th November, 1947.

Union budget is the annual financial report of India, an estimate of Income and Expenses of government on a periodical basis. As per Article 112 of Constitution, it is Compulsory task of Government of India.

1. Morarji Desai Presented maximum number of Times Union Budget (10 Times)

Inter-State Council is a Constitutional Body under Article 263. Prime Minister is ex-officio Chairperson of Inter-State Council.

We have five Zonal Councils and all these five Zonal Councils are headed by Union Home Minister.

Money Bill and Financial Bills can be introduced in Lok Sabha only with prior permission of President.

Planning Commission was an Executive Body established on 15.03.1950 and scraped by Modi Government on 13.08.2014. Planning Commissioner was replaced by Niti Aayog.

Niti Aayog is an Executive Body established on 01.01.2015 to replace Planning Commission. Its ex-officio Chairperson is Prime Minister.

Originally Indian Constitution had 22 Parts, 8 Schedules and 395 Articles. Now our Constitution have 25 Parts, 12 Schedules and 463 Articles.