Polity Notes

Indian Polity Important Points

National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission is a quasi-Judicial Commission set up in 1988 under the Consumer Protection Act 1986. Its head office is at New Delhi. It is a Statutory Body. This commission is headed by sitting or retired Judge of Supreme Court. First Chairperson of this Commission was Justice V. Balakrishna Eradi. Presently, Justice R.K. Agrawal is its Chairperson. Consumer Protection Act, 1986 is a social legislation that lays down the rights of the consumers and provides for their promotion and protection of the rights of consumers. It enables ordinary consumer to secure less expensive and speedy redressal of their grievances.

Pecuniary Jurisdiction of this commission has been changed as (i) District Level Forum – upto Rs. 1 crore (ii) State Level Commission upto Rs. 10 crores and (iii) National Commission more than Rs. 10 crores. Now complaints can be filed electronically before the district forum.

Finance Commission of India (FC)

Finance Commission is a Constitutional Body under Article 280 of the Constitution. Till date 15 finance Commissions have been formed by our President. The Chairperson of First Finance Commission was Sh. K.C. Neogy while the Chairperson of 15th Finance Commission is Sh. N.K. Singh. Finance Commission is formed by President after every 5 years.

National Development Council (NDC)

National Development Council is an Executive Body established by an Executive order of Union Government on 6th August, 1952. Prime Minister is ex-officio Chairperson of NDC.

Vice-Chairperson of Niti Aayog is Sh. Rajiv Kumar while Prime Minister is ex-officio Chairperson of Niti Aayog. Amitabh Kant is Chief Executive Officer (C.E.O.) of Niti Aayog.

Three important Financial Committees of Parliament are–

(i) Estimate Committee (EC)

(ii) Public Accounts Committee (PAC)

(iii) Committee on Public Enterprises.

We have five Zonal Councils and all these five Zonal Councils are headed by Union Home Minister.

(i) Estimate Committee (EC)

Estimate Committee has 30 members. All are from Lok Sabha. Members are elected by Lok Sabha and their tenure is one year. Its Chairperson is appointed by Speaker of Lok Sabha among members. A Union Minister cannot be a member of this committee. Estimate Committee examines whether the money is well laid out within the limits of policy implied in the estimates. This committee suggests alternative policies for efficiency and economy is administration. Sh. Girish Bhapat is Chairperson of this Committee.

(ii) Public Accounts Committee (PAC)

Public Accounts Committee consists of 22 members (15 are from Lok Sabha and 7 from Rajya Sabha). Members are elected by Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha respectively. Tenure of members is one year. A Union Minister cannot be a member of this committee. This Committee Audits the revenue and expenditure of Government of India. Public Accounts Committee examines the audited report of C.A.G. after it is laid in Parliament. C.A.G. assists this committee during the course of investigation. As a convention this committee is always headed by Leader of opposition. Presently, Congress Leader Adhir Ranjan Choudhary is Chairperson of this committee.

(iii) Committee on Public undertakings–

This committee has 22 members (15 from Lok Sabha and 7 from Rajya Sabha) members are elected by Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha respectively. Tenure is one year. This committee examines the Accounts of Public undertakings and consider the report of C.A.G. on Public undertakings, suggest ways to improve the efficiency and economy in working of Public undertakings. A Union Minister cannot be a member of this committee.

Mrs. Meenakshi Lekhi was Chairperson of this committee but after her appointment as Union Minister of State-Foreign Affairs and Culture, she resigned and now Santosh Gangwar is Chairperson of this committee.

Andhra Pradesh Government has requested Union Government to transfer Principal Bench of High Court from Amravati to Kurnool and also proposed to establish its Bench at Vishakhapatnam. Andhra Pradesh is the only state having three capitals De-Jure Capitals–

1) Amravati - Legislative Capital

2) Legislative Capital - Executive Capital

3) Kurnool - Judicial Capital

Defecto Capitals

(1) Amravati - Legislative

(2) Vishakhapatnam - Executive

Andhra Pradesh have five Deputy Chief Ministers.


The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act. The Union Cabinet on 27th December, 2018 has approved amendments in POCSO Act 2012 and introduced stringent measures to check circulation of Child Pornography and Administration of hormones to Children to attain early sexual maturity. Now POCSO Act is Gender neutral. Now the provision of 3 years of imprisonment for circulation of Child Pornography material and death penalty for Penetrative Sexual Assault has been made in this act.

Ordinary Bill

Ordinary Bill is concerned with making of Laws on any matters other than money/financial subjects. Ordinary Bills are of two types— (i) Government Bill and (ii) Private Member Bill.

(i) Government Bill

Government Bills are introduced in Parliament by Union Minister and Private Member Bills are introduced by Parliament members. Ordinary Bill can be introduced in either house of Parliament.

(ii) Money Bill (Article 110)

Money Bill are bills regarding borrowing and Expenditure of Government, Tax Laws, Public Expenditure, Laws against black money etc. Money Bill can be introduced in Lok Sabha only with prior permission of President. Rajya Sabha is powerless on Money Bill. If Rajya Sabha does not approved money bill in within 14 days, it is presumed that Rajya Sabha has passed the Bill.

Financial Bill (Article 117)

Financial Bill is basically a money bill with some ordinary bill features like GST. Financial Bill can be introduced in Lok Sabha only with prior permission of President. Rajya Sabha is equally powerful as Lok Sabha on passage of Financial Bill.

The proposals of Government for levy of new taxes, modification of existing tax structure or continuance of this existing tax structure beyond the period approved by Parliament are submitted to Parliament through this Bill.

Britain has left European Union on 31st January, 2020. Britain is the only Country who has left European Union since its formation on 1st November, 1993. Now the strength of European Union has been reduced to 27 member Countries.

On 27th October, 2019 the head of I.S.I.S. AbuBakrAl-Baghdadi killed himself by detonating a suicide vest during The Barisha (Idlib Province Syria) raid conducted by U.S. Abu Ibrahim al-Hashimi al-Qurashi is the new Leader of I.S.I.S.

Sarkaria Commission

India has a federal Constitution. We have Union Government as well as State Governments. For the development of the Country, Centre and State must work together as team India. Our federation should be Co-operative federation but situation is not the same. This is a fact that Union Government for narrow political gains do try to overturn opposition ruled State Governments.

In view of various problems between healthy relation between Centre and States, Union Government set up a Commission in June 1983 under the Chairmanship of Justice R.S. Sarkaria to suggest reform in distribution of Powers between Union and States. This Commission submitted its report in 1988 and made the following recommendations.

1) Right to delegate authority to states to make laws on Union List subjects should be used liberally (Article 258)

2) Minimal use of Article 356 i.e., State Emergency.

3) Inter State Council to be Constituted.

4) Rejected the demand for the abolition of the post of Governor but suggested that active politician should not be appointed as Governor in a State.

5) If Centre and State have different party Governments, then Governor should not be from the ruling party.

6) Rejected demand of abolition of All India Services.

7) Three language formula should be implemented.

8) The Judges of High Courts should not be transferred without their consent.

Union Government accepted the recommendation of Sarkaria Commission and established Inter State Council in April 1990 under Article 263.

Adjournment Motion

It interrupts the normal business of the House and draw attention to a matter of grave Public Importance.

No Confidence Motion

No Confidence Motion can be introduced in Lok Sabha only. Passing of No Confidence Motion will result in resignation of Prime Minister. (Prime Minister’s resignation means resignation of the whole Union Council of Ministers).

Censure Motion

It is against an individual member of Council of Ministers. Reason should be precise.


It empowers Lok Sabha to draw funds in advance pending the Completion of budgetory process.


It is a procedure by which demands for grants are put to vote regardless whether they have been discussed or not.

Plebiscite (or Refrandum)

It is a process by which views of the Public are taken on a matter of grave National/International importance. Government is not bound to accept the views of the public. A Plebiscite was held in Britain in June 2016 on the issue of Brexit (Britain’s Exit from European Union) and the verdict was in favour of leaving the European Union) British Government accepted and honoured the verdict of the Public and finally Britain left EU on 31.01.2020.


Minimum 10% or more of the members should be present in meeting of Parliament and State Legislatures to make meeting valid.

Question Hour- First hour in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha is known as question hour.

Zero Hour- After the question hour, zero hour starts. No prior permission is needed for members to ask their questions during zero hour.

Parliament Consists of President + Lok Sabha + Rajya Sabha

State Legislature Consists of Governor + Vidhan Sabha + Vidhan Parishad.

Union Minister of Law & Justice – Kiran Rijuju.

Law Minister of Delhi – Kailash Gahlot.