Polity Notes


The first organ of Union/Central Govt is legislature. The function of the legislature is to make laws. In India, the Union Legislature is known as Parliament of India which consists of Upper House i.e. Council of States also known as Rajya Sabha, Lower House i.e. House of the People also known as Lok Sabha, and the President. Parliament of India is a constitutional body under Article 79 of our Constitution and is bicameral ( i.e. have two Houses).

The very important question is: Parliament consists of ______________

Your answer should be: President + Lok Sabha + Rajya Sabha

  • If Parliament of a country just have one house, then it is called as Unicameral Parliament.e,g, Parliament of Maldives, Srilanka etc.
  • The elections of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are conducted by Election Commission of India and the members of Lok Sabha are directly elected by public and their duty is to protect the interests of public.The members of Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected and their duty is to protect the interest of their States from where they have been elected.
  • The tenure of Lok Sabha is five years but tenure is not fixed. Lok Sabha can be dissolved before completion of its tenure. The power to dissolve Lok Sabha lies with President.The tenure of Rajya Sabha-- Rajya Sabha is a permanent house and can never be dissolved. It always remains in existence.
  • The tenure of a member of Lok Sabha is 5 years but tenure is not fixed. The moment President dissolves the Lok Sabha, the membership of its members ceases. As stated above President can dissolve Lok Sabha before completion of its tenure. So, tenure of Lok Sabha is 5 years but not fixed. The tenure of a member of Rajya Sabha is 6 years and tenure of a member of Rajya Sabha is fixed because Rajya Sabha always remain in existence. Rajya Sabha can never be dissolved. However, one third of members who have completed.
  •  Their tenure of six years, retire after every two years and elections for the same are conducted after every two years.
  • Witnesses should be such persons who are likely to survive the Testator;
  •  The present strength of Lok Sabha is 543 members and maximum strength can be 550. The maximum strength of 550 has been freezed till 2026. Earlier, President could nominate two members from Anglo Indian Community to Lok Sabha but this provision has been abolished by (104th Constitutional Amendment Act 2019) effective w.e.f. 25/1/2020.
  • The present strength of Rajya Sabha is 233 + 12 = 245 and max strength can be 238+12 = 250.233 members are elected and 12 members are nominated by president among distinguished persons in basically six fields (Law, Literature, Science & Technology, Sports, Social Work & Gandhian Thought).The Minimum age to be member of Lok Sabha is 25 years and for Rajya Sabha is 30 years respectively.
  •  The Lok Sabha members are directly elected by public. Our country has been divided into 543 Lok Sabha Constituencies on the basis of population. One Lok Sabha member is elected from each constituency. The system of election is known as Single Transferable Vote System (first – Past – The – Post or FPTP). The max representation is from UP state (80 members) whereas minimum representation is at least one member from each state.

List of some states with their representation in Lok Sabha.

State Member
UP 80
PB 13
HR 10
RAJ 25
Bihar 40
J & K 5
Ladakh 1
Delhi 7
Sikkim 1
Mizoram 1

 Rajya Sabha members are indirectly elected. They are elected by elected members of Legislative Assemblies (Vidhan Sabha) of 28 states and elected members of Legislative Assemblies of 3 Union territories namely Delhi, Puducherry.

J&K. Rajya Sabha members are representatives of states and their duty is to take care and protect the interests of their respective states. The states and UT’s have representation in Rajya Sabha. on the basis of their population. Maximum Representation is of UP state with 31 members and minimum one seat from each state.

List of Some States and U T's with their representation in Rajya Sabha

Members 31 7 5 10 16 4 1 1 3 1

The rest of the five UT’s have no representation in Rajya Sabha as these UT’s have no legislative assemblies and Rajya Sabha members are elected by elected members of legislative assemblies.

The Head of Lok Sabha is known as Speaker. Speaker presides the proceedings of Lok Sabha. Speaker is a member of Lok Sabha and is elected by members of Lok Sabha.

The First Speaker of Lok Sabha - Sh G.V. Mavlankar

Present Speaker - Sh Om Birla

First women Speaker - Smt Meera Kumar

If speaker want to resign, he gives his resignation to Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha.

Our Vice President is Ex. Officio head of Rajya Sabha i.e. chairperson of Rajya Sabha. Chairperson of Rajya Sabha is not a member of Rajya Sabhabut is head of Rajya Sabha. He presides the proceedings of Rajya Sabha.

First Chairperson of Rajya Sabha – Dr. S. Radhakrishnan

Present Chairperson of Rajya Sabha – Sh. V. Naidu

In the absence of Speaker, Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha presides the proceedings of Lok Sabha. Dy. Speaker is a member of Lok Sabha but normally not from ruling party but from opposition party. Presently this post is vacant.

In Rajya Sabha, if Chairperson is absent, Vice Chairperson presides the proceedings of the House. Vice chairperson is one of the members of Rajya Sabha and generally not from the ruling party. Present vice chairperson of Rajya Sabha is Sh. Harivansh Narain from Janta Dal United Party (JDU)

 Lok Sabha members are elected simultaneously during general elections normally held after every five years and remain member till the Lok Sabha is dissolved by the president. In 2019, we elected 17th Lok Sabha. In 1951-52, the elections for first Lok Sabha were held. First Lok Sabha was officially constituted on. 17/4/1952. Art. 81 of our Constitution states about composition of Lok Sabha.

Rajya Sabha was officially constituted on 3/4/1952. The last meeting of Constituent Assembly was held on 24th Jan 1950 in which it elected Dr. Rajendra Prasad as first president of India. Thereafter Constituent Assembly was converted into Rajya Sabha. The same Rajya Sabha has been continuing as present Rajya Sabha. It is a permanent house and can never be dissolved.

1/3rd members of Rajya Sabha retire after every 2 years after completing their tenure of six tenure e,g if 1/3rd members were elected in 2010, they got retired in 2016, 1/3rd members got elected in 2012 and retired in 2018, 1/3rd member got elected in 2014 and retired in 2020. So after every two years 1/3rd members retire and elections are held to elect new 1/3rd members of Rajya Sabha.

The Leader of House Lok Sabha – Ex. Officio Prime Minister–Narendra Modi

The Leader of House Rajya Sabha – Piyush Goyal

Opposition Leader Lok Sabha – Vacant

(butCongress leader Adhir Ranjan Choudhary is Symbolic leader of opposition -Lok Sabha)

Opposition Leader Rajya Sabha – Mallikarjun Kharge

Opposition Leader Rajya Sabha – Mallikarjun Kharge

First Leader of opposition Rajya Sabha – Shyam Nandan Mishra

Present Nominated Members of Rajya Sabha

Name Field
Mahesh Jethmalani Law
Sonal Man singh Arts
Ilaiyaraaja Arts
V.Vijayendra Prasad Arts
Ram Shakal Social Work
VeerendraHeggade Social Work
P. T. Usha Sports
Rakesh Sinha Literature
Ranjan Sinha Law

Three nominated members seats are vacant which will be nominated by our president soon.

Important Question:

To be a recognized leader of opposition of Lok Sabha, the largest opposition party must secure at least 10% of the total seats of Lok Sabha. Congress party is the largest opposition party with just 52 Lok Sabha members (3 short of required 55 members). So, this position is vacant.

JOINT SITTING of PARLIAMENT is called by our President and is presided by Speaker ofLok Sabha.

New Parliament Building

Our Parliament building is nearly 100 years old. We need a new building to accommodate more members in future. The building should be technologically better with more security features and should meet the prevailing requirements. New Parliament building has been constructed at a cost of Rs. 970 crore. The foundation stone of this building was laid by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 10th Dec. 2020. It can accommodate. 888 Lok Sabha Members and 384 Rajya Sabha Members. It is expected that strength of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha may be enhanced in near future. Ex. President late Sh. Pranav Mukherjee urged that the strength of Lok Sabha should be increased to 1000.

Important Note: By104th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019(126th Constitution Amendment Bill 2019), reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies has been extended for another ten years (i,e from 70 years to 80 years). Now reservation will be available till 25/1/2030 which was ending on 25/1/2020. The 104th CAA 2019 came into force on 25/1/2020. Also by this amendment, the provision of nomination of two seats from Anglo Indian Community to Lok Sabha by President and one seats in State Legislative Assemblies by State Governors has been abolished.


In Britain Name of Parliament British Parliament
Lower House (House of Commons) 650 members Upper House
Upper House – (House of Lords) 800 members
In USA – Name of Parliament Congress
Lower House – (House of Representatives) 435 members
Upper House – (Senate) 100 members
In Pakistan–Name of Parliament Majlis - e- Shora
Lower House – (National Assembly) 342 members
Upper House – (Senate) 104 members

Names of Parliament of Some other Countries

Country Parliament
Afganistan National Assembly (WolesiJirga)
Srilanka Sinhala
Maldives People’s Majlis
Bangladesh JatiaSansad
Iran Majlis
Israel Knesset
Japan Diet
Nepal Rashtriya Panchayat
Russia Federal Assembly (Duma)
Germany Bundastag

Parliament of Maldives ,Srilanka etc. have just one house i.e. they have Unicameral Parliament

USA upper House (Senate) is considered as the most powerful upper house whereas British upper house (house of Lords) is considered as the weakest upper house in the world. Generally, the strength of lower house is more as compared to upper house but Britain is an exception.

In India, both houses are almost equally powerful. On some issues like No Confidence Motion, Money Bill, Financial Bill, accountability of Union Council of Ministers to Lok Sabha, Lok Sabha is more powerful whereas on issues like removal of vice President from his post before completion of his tenure, any transfer of a subject of state list to union list, allowing union parliament to make law on a subject of state list etc,- Rajya Sabha is more powerful.



The New Parliament Building will be an intrinsic part of the vision of 'Atmanirbhar Bharat'.


The New Parliament Building, built by Tata Projects Ltd., has been constructed next to the current structure during a 22-month period and have a built-up size of 64,500 square meters across four stories. The new structure would feature contributions from artists and sculptors from all around the nation, showing the diversity and elevating it to the status of a “Atmanirbhar Bharat” symbol.


From Rashtrapati Bhavan to India Gate, the New Parliament Building or Central Vista Project is in place. It consists of the Rajpath plots of land immediately adjacent to North Block, South Block, the Parliament building, and other secretariat buildings for the central government. King George V announced in the Delhi Durbar (a large assembly) in December 1911 that Delhi would replace Calcutta as the capital of India. In celebration of King George V’s coronation, Delhi Durbar was held.

Edwin Lutyens, who was well-known for his unwavering devotion to European Classicism, and Herbert Baker, a well-known architect in South Africa, were tasked with building a new metropolis. Additionally, Herbert Baker designed the Union buildings in Pretoria, South Africa. Baker and Lutyens both contributed to the design of Parliament House. The Chausath Yogini Mandir in Madhya Pradesh served as the model for the Indian Parliament’s architecture. Edwin Lutyens was the designer of Rashtrapati Bhavan. Herbert Baker created The Secretariat, which consists of both the north and south blocks.


The New Parliament Building Plan is put forth to accommodate the Parliament, Ministries, and Departments’ current and future space requirements, as well as to offer better public amenities, parking facilities, and other things. The planned redevelopment project is motivated by concerns over fire safety, acoustics, and the deteriorated state of the century-old building.

The strength of the parliament is anticipated to expand from 543 MPs to 900 seats after this project is finished. The initiative also aims to enhance Central vista’s beauty to turn it into a top-tier tourism destination.


The new parliament will be crowned with the national anthem, and its ceiling will feature traditional-style carpeting and fresco paintings similar to those in Rashtrapati Bhawan. In order to preserve some of the qualities of the current parliament, shlokas will be written on the interior walls. As with the current structure, Dholpur stone will serve as the main building material. Red granite might take the place of red sandstone in various interior spaces. Construction will be done with extra care to minimise disruption and protect the environment.

The Lok Sabha will have a seating arrangement of 888 members in the new Parliament House. India currently has 543 seats in the Lok Sabha. Similarly, the Rajya Sabha, which currently has 245 seats in the new Parliament House, will be able to accommodate 384 members. The room designated for it will have seats for 1,272 people when a joint assembly of the two chambers is called at the new Parliament House. Right now, there are just 430 seats available in the Centre Hall where the two Houses convene jointly.

In preparation for a larger Parliament, the new Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha chambers will have more seating (888 and 384 seats, respectively); a 25-year moratorium on raising the state-by-state distribution of seats expires in 2026.


The new structure will feature six entrances where “guardian statues depicting auspicious animals” would be on display. Based on their significance in Indian culture, vaastu shastra, and characteristics like intelligence, victory, power, and prosperity, these “auspicious animals” have been picked. Each animal selected to be housed in the structure carries a set of affirmations that promote harmony and well-being.

The gaja (elephant), which stands for knowledge, riches, intellect, and memory, guards the ceremonial entry to the north. The northern direction is connected to Mercury, the source of greater intellect, according to vaastu shastra. The ashva (horse), a symbol of endurance, strength, power, and speed that describes the calibre of governance, guards the southern gate. The garuda (eagle), a symbol of the people’s aspirations, soars at the eastern entrance.

According to vaastu shastra, the rising sun, which symbolizes victory, is connected to the east. Swans, which stand for judgement and wisdom, are shown at the northeastern entrance. The remaining entrances feature the Makara, a mythical aquatic creature made up of parts from various animals, which symbolizes unity in diversity, and the Shardula, a mythical creature thought to be the most powerful living thing, which represents the strength of the nation’s people.

According to vaastu shastra, the rising sun, which symbolizes victory, is connected to the east. Swans, which stand for judgement and wisdom, are shown at the northeastern entrance. The remaining entrances feature the Makara, a mythical aquatic creature made up of parts from various animals, which symbolizes unity in diversity, and the Shardula, a mythical creature thought to be the most powerful living thing, which represents the strength of the nation’s people.

New Parliament Building Sengol

According to vaastu shastra, the rising sun, which symbolizes victory, is connected to the east. Swans, which stand for judgement and wisdom, are shown at the northeastern entrance. The remaining entrances feature the Makara, a mythical aquatic creature made up of parts from various animals, which symbolizes unity in diversity, and the Shardula, a mythical creature thought to be the most powerful living thing, which represents the strength of the nation’s people.


The new Parliament House was created by Ahmedabad-based HCP Design, Planning and Management, which is managed by “architect Bimal Patel”. The current Parliament House, a colonial-era structure, was created by British architects Sir Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker.


The new Parliament building will be a crucial component of the “Atmanirbhar Bharat” project since craftsmen and sculptors from all across India will contribute to and highlight the country’s cultural diversity there. Additionally, the new Parliament building will be earthquake-resistant. ...


the new Parliament building, which is part of the Central Vista redevelopment project.

  • The new Parliament building, which is part of the Central Vista redevelopment project.
  • The Sengol is a symbol of India’s independence and sovereignty, as well as its cultural heritage and diversity.


  • The Sengol is profound in meaning, derived from the Tamil word “Semmai”, it means “Righteousness”. It was made of gold or silver and was often decorated with precious stones.
    • A Sengol sceptre was carried by emperors on ceremonial occasions, and used to represent their authority.
  •  It is associated with the Chola Empire, one of the longest-ruling and most influential dynasties in South India.
    • The Cholas ruled over parts of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Odisha, and Sri Lanka from the 9th to 13th century CE.
    • They were known for their military prowess, maritime trade, administrative efficiency, cultural patronage, and temple architecture.
  • The Cholas had a tradition of handing over the Sengol sceptre from one king to another as a mark of succession and legitimacy.
    • The ceremony was usually performed by a high priest or a guru who blessed the new king and conferred him with the Sengol.


Before independence from the British rule in 1947, the then Viceroy - Lord Mountbatten posed a question to the to-be Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru: “What is the ceremony that should be followed to symbolise the transfer of power from British to Indian hands?”

  • PM Nehru then consulted C. Rajagopalachari, commonly known as Rajaji, who went on to become the last Governor-General of India.
    • Rajaji suggested that the Chola model of handing over the Sengol sceptre could be adopted as a suitable ceremony for India’s independence.
    • He said that it would reflect India’s ancient civilisation and culture, as well as its unity in diversity.
  • The Sengol sceptre was presented to PM Nehru by Thiruvavaduthurai Adheenam (a 500-year-old Saivaite monastery) on August 14, 1947.

A golden sceptre was crafted by Vummidi Bangaru Chetty, a famous jeweller in Madras (now Chennai).

The Nandi, with its unyielding gaze as the beholder of “Nyaya”, is hand-carved at the top.


After receiving the Sengol sceptre in 1947, Nehru kept it at his residence in Delhi for some time.

  • o He then decided to donate it to Anand Bhavan Museum in Allahabad (now Prayagraj), his ancestral home.
    • The museum was established by his father Motilal Nehru in 1930 to preserve the history and legacy of India’s freedom movement.
  • The Sengol sceptre remained at Anand Bhavan Museum for over seven decades.

In 2021-22, when the Central Vista redevelopment project was underway, the government decided to revive this historical event and install the Sengol sceptre in the new Parliament building.

o It will be placed near the Speaker’s seat in the new Parliament building and will be accompanied by a plaque that will explain its history and meaning.

It will be placed near the Speaker’s seat in the new Parliament building and will be accompanied by a plaque that will explain its history and meaning.

o It signifies that India’s democracy is rooted in its ancient traditions and values and that it is inclusive and respectful of its diversity and plurality.


This iconic structure represents the spirit of a self-reliant India (Aatmanirbhar Bharat) and will be dedicated to the nation by PM Modi on the 28th of May 2023. It stands as a replacement for the old Parliament building, which was completed almost a century ago in 1927.

The decision to construct a new Parliament building as part of the Central Vista project in the national capital was driven by the need for additional space to meet the present requirements. The foundation stone for the new building was laid by PM Modi on December 10, 2020, and construction commenced in January 2021.

Issues with the Old Parliament House included a lack of convenient seating arrangements for Members of Parliament (MPs), which hampered their efficiency in carrying out their work. Designed by British architects Sir Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker, the colonial-era building, originally known as the Council House, was constructed between 1921 and 1927. It served as the home of the Imperial Legislative Council.


Seats in Lok Sabha:

The new Parliament will be able to accommodate 888 MPs in the Lok Sabha, which is quite more than the current capacity of lok sabha (543).

Seats in Rajya Sabha:

The Rajya Sabha of the new Parliament House will also have a larger seating capacity. The current Rajya Sabha has 245 seats, while the new Rajya Sabha will have a provision for 384 seats. This expansion ensures that there will be no shortage of space in the House even if the number of Rajya Sabha MPs increases in the future.

No Central Hall:

Unlike the old Parliament House, the new one will not feature a Central Hall. Instead, the Lok Sabha Hall in the new Parliament House is being designed to easily accommodate joint sessions. It will be able to seat 1,272 people, eliminating the need to install additional chairs during joint sessions.

Earthquake proof:

Given that Delhi has moved from Zone 2 to Zone 4 in terms of seismic activity, with an increased risk of earthquakes in the National Capital Region (NCR), the new Parliament building will be constructed to withstand such events. It will be reinforced to withstand strong shocks in Zone 5, ensuring the safety of the occupants.

Peacock and Lotus Flower Theme:

The Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha in the new Parliament House will showcase distinct themes. The Lok Sabha will incorporate the national bird, the Peacock, while the Rajya Sabha will feature the national flower, the Lotus, in their respective structures.

Modern Facilities:

As a gift to the country on the 75th anniversary of Independence in 2022, the new Parliament House will be the first Parliament building constructed after India's independence. Each MP's seat will have a multimedia display in front of it, enhancing the technological capabilities of the House.

Eco-Friendly Features:

The new Parliament building will prioritize sustainability and eco-friendliness. Green construction materials will be used, and devices will be installed to save 30 percent electricity consumption. Rainwater harvesting and solar power generation systems will be implemented. The seating arrangements will be more comfortable, and the construction will be undertaken by Tata Projects Limited on a total area of 64,500 sqm, with the design by HCP Design Planning and Management Private Limited.

Additional Committee Rooms:

The new Parliament House will include a significantly higher number of committee rooms. These rooms will be equipped with sophisticated audio-visual systems, facilitating the smooth functioning of parliamentary committees.

Special facilities for Media:

The new Parliament House will also have special facilities for the media. A total of 530 seats will be arranged for the media. Both houses will have galleries for the general public to witness parliamentary proceedings. There will be a clear view of the house from every seat.

Public Parliament House:

Preparations are on to make the new Parliament House a public parliament house. Entry of children, elderly and disabled will be easier. There will be two special entrance points for the general public to reach the Public Gallery and Central Constitutional Gallery. Fire safety was not properly maintained in the earlier building. The new building will have better fire safety features.


What is the purpose behind this coin?

Prime Minister Narendra Modi unveiled a Rs 75 commemorative coin to commemorate the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) 75th anniversary. The coin will serve as a tribute to India's long-standing relationship with the UN agency.

Are commemorative coins available?

Although the commemorative coins are not released for general circulation, people can still purchase them. In India, commemorative coins are frequently released to mark important events or special occasions. They are occasionally given out as a sign of respect for famous people or historical sites.