Polity Notes



(Islamic State of Iraq & Syria)


(Islamic State of Iraq & Levant)


(Islamic State)



I.S., I.S.I.S., I.S.I.L., ASH-SHAM, DAESH, all these are the name of one organisation popularly known as I.S.I.S. From June 2014 onwards this group renamed itself as Islamic State (I.S.).

I.S.I.S. is a Sunni, Extremist, Jihadist, Terrorist, Rebel Group. Besides Iraq & Syria it also operates in Libya, Egypt, Middle East, North Africa, South Asia and South-East Asia. This group has been declared as a Terrorist Organisation by U.N., E.U., U.K., U.S.A., Australia, Canada, etc. India declared this group as a Terrorist Organisation on 16th December, 2014. More than 60 Countries have been fighting against I.S.I.S.

This group started in 1999 after the downfall of Saddam Hussain of Iraq under the name Al-Qaeda in Iraq. After the downfall of Saddam Hussain in Iraq this group started recruitment of Soldiers and Officers of Iraqi Army and members of Saddam Hussain’s Baath Party and formed Al-Qaeda in Iraq. In 2004 this group joined Al-Qaeda. In February, 2014, this group got separated from Al-Qaeda and in June, 2014 this group renamed itself as I.S. (Islamic State) but still it is popularly known as I.S.I.S.

Purpose of Islamic State (I.S.)

The purpose of I.S. is to establish a Sunni Islamist State in Iraq and the Levant region which covers Syria, Jordan, Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Cyprus and some parts of Turkey. The Head Quarter of I.S. is at Ar-Raqqah (in Syria). I.S. used to claim its leader Late Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi as Caliph and they want to establish their Caliphate. As Caliphate I.S. claims Religious, Political and Military Authority over all Muslims Worldwide. I.S. has a Black Flag with Holy Seal of Paigamber Mohammad. There is no God but Allah is written on the Flag. I.S. is the biggest enemy of Yazidis. Yazidis are Kurdish Speaking people living in North Iraq. I.S. has done a lot of Atrocities on Yazidis Lakhs of them have either been killed or fled to other parts of the World.

Ideology of I.S.

Ideology of I.S. can be classified as:

(i) Salafism

(ii) Salafi Jihadism

(iii) Wahhabism

It follows an extremist interpretation of Islam, promotes religious violence and regards Muslims who do not agree with its interpretations as infidels or apostates.

Salafi doctrine can be summed up as taking a fundamentalist approach to Islam. They reject religious innovation & support the implementation of Sharia (Islamic Laws).

Salafi Jihadism is religious, Political ideology based on belief in Physical Jihadism and the Salafi movement of returning to what believe to be true Sunni Islam.

Wahhabism is a religious movement of Sunni Islam. The movement emphasises the uniqueness and unity of Islam.

On June 29, 2014, the organisation proclaimed itself to be a worldwide caliphate. Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi was named its Caliph and the group renamed as Islamic State. As a Caliphate, it claims, religious, political and military authority over all Muslim Worldwide and the legality of all Emirates, Groups, States, organisations becomes null by the expansion of Caliphate and arrival of its troops in their areas.

The concept of being a Caliphate and the name Islamic State has been rejected by Governments and Muslims Worldwide.

On 27th October, 2019 the head of I.S. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi killed himself by Detonating a Suicide vest during the Barisha raid (in Idlib province, Syria) conducted by U.S. Army. Abu Ibrahim al-Hashimi al-Qurash is the new Head of I.S.

Funding of I.S.

The main sources of Funding of I.S. are–

1) Extortion

2) Illegal sale of Petroleum Crude

3) Drugs Trafficking

4) Illegal Sale of Human Organs

5) Human Trafficking especially sale of girls.