NATIONAL GREEN TRIBUNAL (NGT)
NGT comes under Ministry of Environment and Forests. NGT is a Statutory Body established on 18.10.2010 by an act of Parliament under the National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources. It was enacted under India’s Constitutional provision of Article 21 which ensures the citizens the Right to a Healthy environment.
The Principal Bench of NGT is at Delhi and is known as Faridkot House.
|Principal Bench at New Delhi (Known as Faridkot House)||Bhopal (Central Zone)||Shimla|
|Kolkata (Eastern Zone)||Kolkata (Eastern Zone)|
|Chennai (Southern Zone)||Jodhpur|
|Pune (Western Zone)||Kochi|
First Chairperson of NGT was Justice Lokeshwar Singh Panta. Presently its Chairman is Justice Adarsh Kumar Goyal. (Ex. Judge of Supreme Court).
Origin of NGT
Presently, NGT has 10 Judicial members and 10 expert members, but National Green Tribunal Act allows upto 20 Judicial members and 20 expert members. Chairperson of NGT is from Judicial members. Every Bench of Tribunal must consist of atleast 1 Judicial member and 1 expert member. Chairman must be either retired or serving Chief Justice of a High Court or a Judge of Supreme Court. Other Judicial members are retired Judges of High Courts. Expert members are experts from different fields such as environment, agriculture, industry, animal husbandry, waste management etc.
Tenure of Chairperson & Members
Five years or upto the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier.
Justice Kuldeep Singh is known as Green Judge of India. He delivered many important ruling on protection of environment.
Jurisdiction of NGT
The Tribunal has original Jurisdiction on matters relating to environment and damage to environment due to specific activity. Tribunal is not bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure 1908, but shall be guided by the principle of natural Justice. While passing orders the NGT will apply principles of sustainable development, the precautionary principle and the polluter pays principle. The decisions of NGT can be challenged in Supreme Court within 90 days.
Supreme Court on 13.04.2021 said that NGT is not vested with the power to examine the validity of any law or strike it down. The Court observation on the limits of the powers of NGT came in course of the hearing of a petition filed by NGO Environment Support Group.