Union Public Service Commission (UPSC)
UPSC is a constitutional Body under Art 315-323 of our constitution.
Before independence, we had two premier All India Services, ICS (Indian Civil Service) and IP (Imperial Police). Most of the ICS & IP officers used to be Britishers. Indians had been demanding more representation of Indians in administration & police force.
British Govt set up first civil services commission in London in 1854 and examinations started in 1855. Earlier examinations used to take place in London. So only a few Indians could appear in civil services exams. Sh. Satyendra Nath Tagore brother of Ravindera Nath Tagore was the first Indian selected for Indian Civil Service (ICS).
As per Montagu Chelmsford reforms, Civil Services Exams also started in India in 1922. (Firstly at Allahabad (now Prayagraj) and then at Delhi).
First Public Service Commission in India was established on 1st Oct 1926 under the chairmanship of Sir Ross Barker. By Govt of India Act 1935, this Public Service Commission was renamed as Federal Public Service Commission. After independence this FPSC became UPSC and got the status of constitutional body on 26th Jan 1950.
After independence name of ICS was changed as IAS (Indian Administrative Service) and IP as IPS (Indian Police service.)
Note (1): Most of the SCAMS in Man Mohan Singh govt (2004-2014) were exposed by 11th CAG Vinod Rai (2008-13) e,g 2G Scam, 3G Scam, 4G Scam, Fodder Scam, Coal Scam, Commonwealth Games Scam etc. Vinod Rai was also responsible for defeat of Man Mohan Singh Govt in 2014 due to exposure of these scams. Modi govt appointed him first chairman of Bank Board Bureau. Now he is Hon. Advisor to Railways and a member of Railway Kaya Kalp council.
Functions of UPSC: The basic function of UPSC is to recommend suitable candidates for various All India Services like IAS, IPS, Indian forest service, IES ISS, IRS etc and various senior posts under Central Govt Departments. Similarly UPSC recommends Central Govt in promotions and transfers of senior Central Govt officials.
UPSC Conducts various competitive exams, personality test etc and recommend suitable candidates. Lakhs of students all over India take part in these exams. UPSC is one among the few institutions which function with both autonomy and freedom.
UPSC do submits its annual report to the president. This report is laid before both houses of Parliament and detailed discussion is held on its report by members of Parliament in both the houses.
Headquarter: UPSC is located at Shahjahan Road, N. Delhi. The building of UPSC is popularly known as Dholpur House.
Composition: UPSC is headed by chairperson and has ten members.
Minimum of Half of the members must be civil servants having vast experience in the field of Administration, Police, Planning, Management etc. Chairperson & Members are generally senior IAS, IPS officers. Scholars, Professors, Vice Chancellors of Universities etc.
The Present Chairperson is Prof (Dr) Pradeep Kumar Joshi (a renowned scholar) Before him Mr. Arvind Saxena was the chairperson.
Appointment: Chairperson & Members are appointed by President.
Tenure: Six years or up to the age of 65 years whichever is earlier.
Resignation: Chairperson & members can submit their resignation to the President.
Removal: The tenure of chairperson & members is six years or up to the age of 65 years whichever is earlier but this tenure is not fixed. They can be removed by President before completion of their tenure on charges of proved misbehavior or incapacity or both after an inquiry conducted by a judge of Supreme Court.
Amar Pratap Singh Ex Director CBI, was a member of UPSC. He was tainted in Hawala Scandal. When Modi govt came in power in may 2014, their was a demand to remove him from his post. Ultimately he resigned from the post to avoid his removal by President.