Polity Notes


Vice-President of India is a Constitutional post under Article-63 of our constitution. Vice-President is second senior most executive of India.

Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, was our first Vice-President and now Sh. Jagdeep Dhankar is our 14th Vice-President. Sh. Venkaiya Naidu, was our 13th president.

Tenure of Vice-President is 5 years, but tenure is not fixed. This means he can be removed before completion of his tenure. The power to remove Vice-President lies with our Parliament. Rajya Sabha is more powerful on this issue. Any motion to remove Vice-President can be introduced in Rajya Sabha only and the same must be passed by Rajya sabha by its special majority i,e, by 2/3 majority. Then the motion is placed before the Lok Sabha and after getting the assent of Lok Sabha by its simple majority, the removal motion stands passed by Parliament and Vice-President stand removed from his post. This have never happened in history of India, even no removal motion has been introduced in Rajya Sabha till date to remove Vice-President.


Vice President of India is appointed by an Electoral College consisting of All Members of Parliament (Elected as well Nominated )


Any citizen of India, above 35 years of age and eligible to be elected as a member of Rajya Sabha can contest election of Vice-President. He must not be holding any office of profit under Govt. of India, Govt. of State or under any local or other authority under the control of any said Govts (may hold the post of President, Vice-President, Governor, Minister of Union or of any State Govt.)

Vice-President is Ex-officio, Chairperson of Rajya Sabha. Although he is not a member of Rajya Sabha but still he is Chairperson of Rajya Sabha and presides proceedings of the same.Our Constitution does not prescribe duties and powers of Vice-President. He has all duties and powers in capacity of Chairperson of Rajya Sabha. In case Vice-President want to resign, he can submit his resignation to the President.

Election of Vice-President

The post of Vice-President is elected one. Election are conducted by Election Commission of India. Any dispute regarding election of Vice-President is resolved by Supreme Court.

System of Election

Vice-President is elected by system of proportional representation system by single.

Salary of Vice-President is Rs. 4 lakh per month. He is paid salary in capacity of Chairperson of Rajya Sabha (not in capacity of Vice-President). Salary is taxable.

In case of death or resignation by the President, Vice-President do assumes his office as Acting President for a maximum period of 6 months. It is mandatory that elections for new President must be conducted within 6 months to elect new President. When Vice-President take charge as Acting President, the post of Vice-President remains vacant and Acting President do not chair the proceeding of Rajya Sabha.

In 1969, after the death of President Dr. Zakir Hussain, Vice-President V.V. Giri was sworn in as Acting President. He too resigned after one month. Thereafter Chief Justice of India Justice Mohammad Hidayatullah took over as Acting President. There after V.V. Giri became President after winning the election of president.

In 1977, after the death of President Farkruddin Ali Ahmed, Vice-President Sh. B.D. Jatti took charge as Acting President of India. Elections were conducted by ECI to elect a new President. Mr. Neelam Sanjeev Reddy was elected and he became our President and Sh. B.D. Jatti returned back to the office of Vice-President.

Note:- In U.S.A. in case of death or resignation of the President, Vice-President do assumes office of President for the remaining period of the President. Elections are held to elect new President only after 4 years on regular basis. After the murder of President John F. Kennedy in 1963, Vice-President Mr. Johnson became President for the rest of the tenure of Kennedy. Similarly in 1974 after the resignation of President Richard Nixon (due to Watergate scandal),Vice-President Zerald Ford became President for the rest of the tenure of Nixon.

Process of Election

Vice-President is elected by an Electoral College consisting of elected as well as nominated members of Parliament (in Lok Sabha 543 + in Rajya Sabha 245, total 788 members), only these 788 members of Parliament have the right to vote in the election of Vice-President. The vote value of each member is one. Every Electoral College member has to mark his preferences on the Ballot Paper using a special pen provided by election commission .

Sample Image of a Ballot Paper

Name of the Candidates. Preference for example.
A 2
B 7
C 1
D 4
E 6
F 5
G 3

First of all, invalid votes are separated and rejected. Then a Quota is determined by using this formula

Quota = (Total no.of valid votes / Total no.f candidates to be elected + 1) + 1

In the last Vice-Presidential election held on 6th Aug 2022 total valid vote were 710, then a quota was calculated as under:—

Quota = (Total no.of valid votes / Total no.f candidates to be elected + 1) + 1

= (710 / 1 + 1) + 1 = 355 + 1 = 356

Then first preference votes were counted. If any candidates receives the desired quota, he is declared as elected. If none of the candidate receives the desired quota then the candidate with the least votes is eliminated and second preference votes are counted. Then if any candidates secures the desired quota, by adding 1st and 2nd preference vote, then he is declared elected and this process continues till a candidate gets the desired quota

In the last vice presidential elections , Mr Jagdeep Dhankar was the NDA Candidate While Mrs. Margaret Alva was the opposition parties candidate.

After counting of 1st preference votes. Mr. Jagdeep Dhankar got 528 votes while Mrs. Margaret Alva got 182 votes. As Mr Dhankar achieved the desired quota, the returning officer ( Secretary General of Rajya Sabha Sh. Utpal Kumar Singh ) declared Mr. Jagdeep Dhankar elected as new Vice-President of India and issued him winning certificate.The oath of office to Vice-President is administered by President. Mr. Jagdeep Dhankar took oath & assumed office on 11th August, 2022 for a five years term.In case vice president want to resign. He submits his resignation to the PRESIDENT

Election Commission appoints Secretary General of Lok Sabha and Secretary General of Rajya Sabha as returning officer alternatively in Vice-Presidential election. To eliminate non-serious candidate, the nomination paper of a candidate must be proposed by at least 20 members of Electoral College and seconded by at least 20 members of Electoral College. Every candidate has to submit a security deposit of Rs. 15000/-. The security deposit of candidates securing less than 1/6 of valid votes is forfeited.

Notification of Election of 14th Vice President of India- Election Commission of India announced Schedule of election of 14th Vice President of India’a on 5th July 2022. Election were held on 6th Aug.2022 between 10 AM to 5 PM at Parliament House and then counting of votes took place and result was declared by Returning officer. The newly elected vice president assumed his officer on 11th Aug 2022.

Sh Jagdeep Dhankar, Ex. Governor of west Bengal was the NDA candidate. He is a Jaat Leader who hails from Rajasthan. Mrs. Margaret Alva, former Union cabinet Minister was the consensus candidate of most of the opposition parties for the vice presidential elections.